1.2 Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
A Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes with
wireless networking interfaces that form a temporary network without the aid of
any infrastructure or central control [ 1 , 9 ]. Examples of these mobile nodes include
laptops, notebooks, cell phones, and tablets. A simple architecture of a MANET is
shown in Fig. 1.1 . Nodes in a MANET are autonomous, self-organizing, self-
configuring nodes that communicate in a multi-hop fashion and can move arbi-
trarily. Therefore, the network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology
changes. The nodes in the network not only act as hosts but also as routers that
route data to/from other nodes in the network.
MANETs originated from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) [ 10 ] Packet Radio Networks (PRENET) in the early 1970s. Being free
of infrastructure, MANETs have many advantages such as ease of deployment,
low cost, and high flexibility. Having these advantages, MANETs are appropriate
for many commercial and industrial applications; for example, educational and
file sharing purposes in conferences/meetings/lectures, emergency services, law
enforcement operations, and home networking.
MANETs are considered the oldest wireless multi-hop network paradigm, and
the other multi-hop paradigms can be considered as special cases of MANETs with
some unique characteristics, application domains, and design requirements.
A simple mobile ad-hoc network architecture