Networking Reference
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between two mesh clients. In both cases, all transmissions are done via WMRs in a
multi-hop fashion.
1.5 Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is the newest paradigm of wireless multi-
hop networks. It emerged from MANETs with the mobile nodes being the vehicles
on the roads. Vehicles communicate using wireless communication in a multi-hop
fashion for disseminating information. These connected vehicles are known as
intelligent vehicles and are equipped with a wireless communication module and
sensors that monitor the interior and exterior surroundings and provide assistance/
alerts to the driver via an on-board unit (OBU) [ 13 ].
Many standards have been introduced for VANET wireless communication
with the most dominant being the Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment
(WAVE) standard. WAVE is an amendment of the IEEE 802.11 standard for
WLAN and it is standardized to be known as IEEE 802.11p [ 14 ].
Vehicles communicate with one another and with Road Side Units (RSUs) for
relaying and sharing messages and information that will support many ITS
application domains such as safety applications (e.g., broadcasting safety warn-
ings), traffic management applications, road condition monitoring applications,
infotainment applications (e.g., Internet access), advanced driver assistance ser-
vices (ADAS) applications (e.g., automatic toll collection, remote diagnostics), to
name a few.
Four communication patterns are available in VANET communications:
(1) beaconing; 1-hop broadcasting for position and velocity information, (2)
geocasting; sending information to an area of interest, (3) unicasting; sending
information to a specific destination, and (4) information dissemination; flooding
the surrounding area with information [ 15 ]. Figure 1.4 illustrates these commu-
nication patterns.
Fig. 1.4 VANET communication patterns: a Beaconing, b Geocasting, c Unicasting, and
d Information dissemination
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