for each network paradigm. In this chapter, we will show the distinguishing
characteristics and challenges for each of the four aforementioned network para-
digms, the most popular classification for each paradigm, and the core components
and distinguishing routing functionalities for each network paradigm.
For each of the following sections, we will present a discussion of the distin-
guishing features of all the wireless multi-hop network paradigms to serve as a
comparison of the four paradigms and help the reader assimilate the distinctions of
these paradigms in terms of their routing requirements and functionalities.
3.2 Distinguishing Design Considerations
In this section, we present the design considerations for each of the wireless multi-
hop network paradigms that should be taken into account by a routing protocol
Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Routing is considered a vital component for the operation of a MANET due to the
network dynamics, and many protocols have been proposed in the area of routing
in MANETs. There are several design challenges that need to be considered in
designing a routing protocol for a MANET:
(a) Node Mobility
As the nodes are free to move, the network topology keeps changing. In
addition to being either a source or a destination, nodes in MANETs also serve as
routers for other nodes' transmissions, so the routing paths are always prone to
failure. It is the responsibility of the routing protocol, besides discovering the
route, to provide a recovery from such path failures. The routing protocol should
have a route maintenance component to ensure that packets reach their destination
in the shortest time even if the original path has been broken for some reason. The
frequent change of network topology is considered the most significant and critical
challenge for routing in MANETs.
(b) Resource Constraints
Nodes in MANETs are often portable devices that are limited in their hardware
resources. This imposes limitations on the complexity of the designed protocol.