Networking Reference
In-Depth Information
As shown in this section, each network paradigm has a unique popular classi-
fication of its routing protocols. Such a classification is derived from the unique
features of each paradigm. The basic classification is the one based on route
discovery and this is the one used for classifying the routing protocols of MANETs.
As proactive routing is not common in WSNs due to its control packet overhead,
the WSN routing protocols are commonly classified according to a different
taxonomy. The hierarchical and position-based protocols are common in WSNs
due to their scalability features; therefore, the best classification for the routing
protocols of WSNs is based on the network structure. For WMNs, as the main
objective is achieving a satisfactory QoS level and meeting desired performance
goals, the best taxonomy for the WMN routing protocols is the one based on the
performance optimization objectives. Lastly, as VANETs utilize the position-based
protocols heavily because they are the most suitable ones for their addressing
scheme—location-based—and because they also inherit some topology-based
protocols from MANETs, the best taxonomy for VANET routing protocols is the
one based on the network structure.
3.4 Core Components and Functionalities
Core components are inherited by all routing protocols for all wireless multi-hop
networks. In addition, routing protocols for each network paradigm may have
auxiliary components that are added to meet the requirements and challenges of
the network paradigm. Such components are crucial in some network paradigms to
provide the needed efficiency; therefore, these components will be also considered
core ones for that specific network paradigm.
In this section, we will discuss the core components of each wireless multi-hop
network paradigm and show which auxiliary components will be activated and
considered as core for that network paradigm. We will also explore different
functionalities deployed by the routing protocols for handling the operation of each
of these components and some representative routing protocols that adopt these
functionalities.
Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
The most critical challenge in designing a routing protocol for MANETs is han-
dling node mobility to maintain network connectivity. As the nodes are free to
move, the network topology incurs frequent changes in the links connecting nodes
and the neighborhood of each node; thus, links are usually prone to failures. To
maintain connectivity and achieve a satisfactory degree of reliability in MANETs,
the route maintenance component is a crucial part of any MANET routing pro-
tocol. In addition to the three core components—route discovery, route selection,
and route representation and data forwarding—route maintenance is activated
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