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route maintenance techniques supported by the utilized proactive and reactive
protocols.
Wireless Sensor Networks
The most critical design challenge for WSNs is the energy efficiency. Energy
conservation techniques should be included in any WSN routing protocol to be
suitable for the characteristics of the WSN, to provide efficient operation and
routing functions, and to prolong the network lifetime to be operational for many
years without intervention from the network designers who, in many cases, will
not be able or willing to recharge the network nodes. 5 Therefore, in addition to the
three core components, the energy efficiency component will be activated and
considered a core one.
The WSN has its own unique data-centric addressing scheme based on the
attribute-based addressing. In WSNs, the interest is on the data itself and the area
where it is sensed, not on which nodes are reporting this data. Therefore, estab-
lishing routes is not based on finding a path to a specific destination with a specific
address out of many. There is a sole destination which is the BS or the dedicated
data collector that collects the reported data for further analysis. The location of
the BS is known and, in most cases, it is unchangeable throughout the whole
operation of the network. The focus is not on discovering and selecting an opti-
mum route; the focus is on reporting and forwarding the data to the BS. Route
discovery and selection is done in parallel with the data forwarding stage. Since
the operation of these stages is combined together, we propose merging the three
core components—route discovery, route selection, and route representation and
data forwarding—into one core component which we call Route Establishment
and Data Forwarding. With the introduction of this new component, the core
components of the WSN routing protocol are the Route Establishment and Data
Forwarding component and the Energy Efficiency component.
(a) Route Establishment and Data Forwarding
Communication in WSNs can be either (1) data-based with the nodes com-
mencing the communication by reporting or advertising the data they have either
on a time or event-driven basis, or (2) query-based with the BS issuing data
interests and disseminating them through the network asking for specific sensing
tasks. Based on these communication patterns, we classify the route establishment
and
data
forwarding techniques
into
either
source-initiated or sink-initiated
techniques:
5 For example, it may be infeasible or impossible to change the batteries for the nodes deployed
in harsh or hostile environments.
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