Networking Reference
In-Depth Information
Chapter 1
Introduction
Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) is a step forward in the well-known
wide-spread Internet revolution. It consists in a world of physical objects embed-
ded with sensors and actuators linked by wireless networks and communicating
using the Internet, shaping a network of smart objects, with processing power and
able to capture environmental variables and to react to external stimuli. Such objects
are connected and can be controlled over the Internet, enabling a myriad of novel
applications. IoT is one of the key technologies to enable the creation of cyber phys-
ical systems and realize the vision of new IT application domains such as Smart
Cities. Several recent technological advances enabled the emergence of IoT such as
nanotechnology, wireless sensor networks, mobile communication, and ubiquitous
computing. However, there is still a set of challenges to be addressed in order to
fully realize the IoT paradigm, mainly related to the development of IoT applica-
tions dealing with the heterogeneity arising from the diversity of hardware, sensors
and actuators, and wireless technologies inherent to such an environment.
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Keywords
Internet of Things (IoT)
Web of Things (WoT)
Smart objects
Smart-
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Sensor
Middleware
Applications for IoT
1.1 Motivation
The advances on electronic devices, communications, RFID technology and the
explosive growth of the World Wide Web (WWW) have contributed to drive the
development of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 11 ]. IoT enables the
connection of the virtual and physical worlds, where physical objects, the so-called
smart objects [ 6 ], are connected to the Internet and can be remotely controlled by
users and even communicate with each other. IoT extends the traditional interaction
between human and machines provided by the Internet to a new dimension, human-
to-thing (H2T) and thing-to-thing (T2T) communications. As reported by the IoT
 
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