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European Research Cluster group, the IoT applications can be applied to multiple
domains, including: telecommunications, medical technology, healthcare, environ-
ment monitoring, agriculture and breeding, oil and gas, food traceability, intelligent
buildings, safety, security and privacy and many more [ 4 ]. Considering the signifi-
cance and high potential, governments, research institutes, industries and academics
have paid great attention to IoT and its application in the past few years. IoT is
included by the US National Intelligence Council (NIC) in the list of six “Disruptive
Civil Technologies” with potential impacts on US national power [ 8 ]. NIC foresees
that “by 2025 Internet nodes may reside in everyday things—food packages, furni-
ture, paper documents, and more”. Besides that, the US National Science Foundation
(NSF) has identified IoT as a key area of research [ 8 ], and IBM proposed Smarter
Planet as an industry implementation of IoT. Even though there are numerous projects
and developments concerning certain aspects of the IoT, it is still in infancy and many
research efforts need to be done to fully accomplish its potential.
Inspired on the IoT idea, a new application development paradigm has recently
emerged, the so-called Web of Things (WoT) , which uses Web technologies in the
development of applications composed of smart objects that can be viewed and
used in the same way as any other Web resource. The realization of the WoT par-
adigm requires that the World Wide Web, as we know, be extended so that real-
world objects and embedded devices can be seamlessly incorporated into it. This
extension is obtained by using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)and the Rep-
resentational State Transfer (REST) [ 5 ] principles for creating RESTful APIs that
allow smart objects to become Web resources. The REST emphasis on resources
that are addressed using URIs is described by the Resource-Oriented Architecture
(ROA) [ 10 ]. Furthermore, through the support, for instance, of middleware platforms,
services may be provided on top of the resources connected to the Web so as to facil-
itate the fast combination of features to create multiple value-added applications, the
so-called physical mashups [ 3 , 7 ]. Within the context of Web-enabled smart objects,
the current form of integrating resources that are not natively HTTP compliant has
several limitations [ 7 ] and alternative architectures need to be proposed and evalu-
ated. Moreover, in spite of the fast “populating” of WoT, it is necessary to develop
a more standardized and scalable approach to integrate smart objects in the Web.
Such an approach must address multilevel integration issues. At the lower level, it is
necessary to seamlessly integrate a myriad of heterogeneous physical devices with
each other. At the intermediate level, in order to provide value-added services on
top of the simple sensing service provided by the devices, it is necessary to easily
integrate sensing data with Internet available functionality, ranging from simple data
processing functions, such as data aggregation, to more complex Web applications.
At the higher level, a standardized programming model can provide the ultimate inte-
gration level, delivering programming elements specifically tailored to transparently
assemble and transform information from sensing devices, without demanding any
specific knowledge from the developer regarding the specificities of physical devices
and networking environment.
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