Networking Reference
In-Depth Information
Arduino, 1 Sun SPOT, 2 and the MICA motes Family (manufactured by MEM-
SIC,former Crossbow), 3 this later based on the TinyOS operating system, 4 specially
designed to sensors. They are proper to a WSN scenario with several tiny and low-
power networked devices in interaction.
Arduino refers to both a simple microprocessor board designed mainly for use by
academics, and the software system that is used to program the board. The Arduino
project was initiated in Ivrea Italy in 2005 to provide simple, easy-to-use boards,
and it has been recently reported than more than 100,000 Arduino boards have been
produced so far. The circuit design for the board is “open-source” in the sense that
it is available under a Creative Commons license Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 [ 4 ].
The board consists of an Atmel AVR processor—the latest boards contain the AVR
Mega328 (8-bit processor, 32 Kbytes Flash, 2KB SRAM, Digital I/O, PWMoutputs,
ADC inputs, SPI andUART communications, 16MHz clock). Atmel AVRprocessors
are used in many other motes due to their compact size, useful peripherals, and low-
power sleep modes. A large range of peripherals is already available for Arduino,
such as accelerometers, light, temperature sensors, motor drivers, and GPS receivers.
The Arduino interface connectors provide direct connections to microprocessor pins
such as digital I/O, analog I/O, interrupts and TTL-level UARTS. Different sensor
interfaces can be quickly developed using the range of connectors. Arduino software
is often developed using a simplified programming interface based on the Wiring
project [ 3 ], and using a simple Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The
system accepts code snippets that are automatically expanded into complete C/C++
programs, and compiled using a standard GNU tool-chain. A simple boot-loader
automatically uploads code to the processor.
Sun SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) [ 22 ] is a platformdeveloped
by Sun Microsystems/Oracle. The Sun SPOT hardware platform is a small, battery
operated wireless device, that runs the Squawk Java Virtual Machine directly on the
processor without an underlying operating system. Sun SPOT provides a low-cost
platform for the development of several wireless sensor and embedded applications.
For instance, SPOTs can be used in robotics cars or in the monitoring of physical
phenomena. There are two types of devices provided by SunSPOT: the free-range
SPOTs (with processor, radio, sensor board and battery) and the base station (with
processor and radio).
MEMSIC provides a broad portfolio of wireless sensor nodes to meet the specific
needs of target applications for either end-user or OEM designs. It provides a variety
of processor boards, sensor boards and data acquisition cards that connect to their
wireless modules. Moreover, MEMSIC provides a wide range of gateway boards to
connect to sensor nodes via multiple types of interfaces, including Ethernet, Wifi,
USB and serial. All MICA and IRIS family sensor boards from MEMSIC support
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