Networking Reference
In-Depth Information
Fig. 6.3 Parking lot image
6.2.2 Environment Setup
The experiment was conducted in three parking lots located at the Center for Math-
ematical Sciences and Nature (CCMN) in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
(UFRJ), Brazil. One of these parking lots is illustrated in Fig. 6.3 . This parking lot has
three rows with 72 places available in each, summing up 216 monitored car spaces.
To detect vehicles and to distinguish them from other objects, such as a person
walking through the parking entrance, one pair of sensor nodes endowed with ultra-
sonic distance detectors were placed at the entrance and exit of each row of the
parking lot, as shown in Fig. 6.3 . Whenever an object is detected, each pair of sensor
nodes sends its collected data to a sink node (Gateway) using a wireless communica-
tion channel. A SIM Driver installed in the sink node receives such data, decodes it,
and then forwards it to the SIM Manager component . Then, the Manager component
analyses the data and identifies that it must be forwarded to a specific Web service
installed in the SIM to further processing. This Web service is responsible for calcu-
lating the width of the detected object, and to infer whether it is a car or other type
of object. Whenever a car is detected, the Web service accesses the SIM database to
update the current number of available car spaces of the parking lot. Regarding the
hardware, both the pairs of sensor nodes and the wireless communication module
of the sink node consist of Arduino Uno boards endowed with Xbee Shields for
wireless communication. The SIM components are installed in a desktop computer
and another computer hosts the PEM components. The details of the hardware used
for this experiment are found in Sect. 6.2.3 .
Figure 6.4 shows a schematic draw of the configuration of the sensor nodes and
sink nodes in the parking lot application. A pair of sensor nodes were placed at the
 
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