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professional credentials for cognition-based trust [ 42 ]. These two dimensions
closely follow the warmth and competence dimensions from cognitive studies as
In essence, the warmth/competence taxonomy merges benevolence and integrity
into a single dimension of trustworthiness. In other words, warmth summarizes
whether one is considered a friend or foe. When one trusts another as a friend,
she is likely to associate with that person many of the keywords offered at the top
of Table 3.1 . These keywords for the most part have an affective component. This
affective element has been illustrated in many studies involving individuals playing
various games with another [ 20 ]. Some studies have shown that individuals choose
to punish an act perceived as unfair even though the punishment does not maximize
their utility. This type of motive is considered pro-social where the punishment is
altruistic and benefits others instead of oneself.
To sum up, trustworthiness and ability are two crucial factors considered when
forming opinions of others mirroring integrity and ability from the taxonomy
of Mayer et al. [ 41 ]. Benevolence is tied to the specific task at hand and the
shared goals the individuals are pursuing in the given task. It is not clear whether
benevolence is a distinct dimension for evaluating trustworthiness, as we will
elaborate more in the next section.
Trustworthiness of Non-Human Actors
Trustworthiness traits are generally assigned to conscious beings or organizations
containing human beings. However, research has examined whether non-human
other entities can be trusted. Can robots be teammates? How do we trust automated
systems to perform tasks? In particular, human interaction with automation can
be framed as one of the following four main tasks [ 54 ]: information acquisition
(e.g., getting sensor information about location), information analysis (e.g., getting
Fig. 3.3 Trustworthiness of
non-human actors
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